PALUBA
December 18, 2018, 12:25:44 pm *
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.
Did you miss your activation email?

Login with username, password and session length
News:
 
   Home   Help Search Calendar Login Register  
Del.icio.us Digg FURL FaceBook Stumble Upon Reddit SlashDot

Pages:  [1] 2 3 4 5   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Saga interkontinentalne balističke rakete Bulava  (Read 24343 times)
 
0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.
Rade
Administrator
kapetan bojnog broda
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 16 272



WWW
« on: September 18, 2008, 10:34:38 pm »

18.09.2009.g iz lista "Politika"

Ruska mornarica uspešno je testirala novu interkontinentalnu balističku raketu tipa "bulava", javili su danas ruski mediji, pozivajući se na ministarstvo odbrane Rusije.

Raketa "bulava" lansirana je danas sa ruske nuklearne podmornice "Dmitrij Donskoj" u Belom moru i pogodila je metu na Kamčatki, navodi se u saopštenju ministarstva odbrane.

Raketa "bulava" razvijena je u moskovskom Institutu za termalnu tehnologiju koji je razvio i raketu tipa "topolj-m".

"Bulava" ima domet od 10.000 kilometara i šest nezavisno vođenih bojevih glava.
Logged
FF
zastavnik I klase
*
Offline Offline

Posts: 1 912


« Reply #1 on: September 19, 2008, 05:54:29 am »

Kao mali dodatak - Bulava je ustvari Topol-M prilagođen lansiranju iz podmornica u zaronjenom stanju. "Dimitrij Donski" je podmornica klase Tajfun, koja služi kao test brod za ove rakete. Inače, raketa je namenjena novoj generaciji ruskih nuklearnih podmornica sa balističkim raketama (Borei klasa). Program testova nije išao baš glatko, jer je nekoliko opitnih lansiranja bilo neuspešno.
Logged
Bane
stariji vodnik I klase
*
Offline Offline

Posts: 918


« Reply #2 on: September 19, 2008, 03:34:57 pm »

To samo može "Politika" Smiley Bulave se testiraju već tri godine u raznim varijantama, a nekoliko puta je sam Donski vršio testiranja.

Problemi koje je pokazala Bulava se tiču automatskog sistema upravljanja, koji je kriv za sva propala testiranja. Redizajniranje sistema kontrole će odložiti ulazak Bulave u operativnu upotrebu.
Logged
Rade
Administrator
kapetan bojnog broda
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 16 272



WWW
« Reply #3 on: September 19, 2008, 03:36:34 pm »

Šta je Politika loše prenela. Ona je samo javila da je lansirana rakweta  i to uspešno. Nigde se ne poziva na istorijat projekta, koliko je lansirano, kada i kako... Ova je retka koja je odletela kako treba...
Logged
Bane
stariji vodnik I klase
*
Offline Offline

Posts: 918


« Reply #4 on: September 19, 2008, 03:45:33 pm »

Šta je Politika loše prenela. Ona je samo javila da je lansirana rakweta  i to uspešno. Nigde se ne poziva na istorijat projekta, koliko je lansirano, kada i kako...

U pravu si, ja sam se malo zaleteo Embarrassed


Ova je retka koja je odletela kako treba...

 Grin pilot
Logged
Rade
Administrator
kapetan bojnog broda
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 16 272



WWW
« Reply #5 on: November 28, 2008, 08:54:54 pm »

28.11.2008.

DefenceNews

Rusija uspešno testirala Bulavu, lansiravši je sa podmornice "Dmitrij Donski"...

Cela vest
Quote
Russia successfully tested on Nov. 28 a sea-based missile capable of carrying multiple nuclear warheads, the military said, amid continued tension with Washington over missile defense.

A Bulava missile fired from the Dmitry Donskoy submarine in the White Sea, along Russia's northern coast, hit its target on the Kamchatka Peninsula near the Pacific Ocean, navy spokesman Igor Dygalo said in a statement.

"The warhead successfully reached the Kura test site on Kamchatka," he said, describing a flight-path about 6,000 kilometers (4,000 miles) in length.

Four out of the six previous tests of the Bulava were unsuccessful, the Interfax news agency reported.

The launch comes after Moscow has repeatedly expressed its fury over U.S. plans to place a missile defense radar system in the Czech Republic and interceptor missiles in Poland.

Earlier on Nov. 28, the commander of Russia's missile forces announced that their new RS-24 missile - a land-based weapon that Moscow says is designed to overcome the U.S. missile shield - would be deployed from December 2009.

The Bulava, which can be equipped with up to 10 individually targeted nuclear warheads, has a maximum range of 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles) and was first successfully tested in December 2005.

It is the sea-based version of the Topol-M, designed to be launched from Moscow's newest Borei class of submarines.
Logged
Dreadnought
Global Moderator
kapetan bojnog broda
*
Offline Offline

Posts: 22 352



« Reply #6 on: June 22, 2009, 05:02:35 pm »

Topol-M i Bulava balističke rakete će činiti srž Ruskog nuklearnog arsenala, izjavio je General-major Aleksandar Ševčenko. Prema planu modernizacije, do 2016 godine Rusija će kompletno modernizovati pomorsku komponentu nuklearnog arsenala.

Borey klasa, četvrta generacija podmornica na nuklearni pogon će biti naoružana Bulava balističkim raketama i prve dve od tih podmornica su spremne za pomorske probe. "Yuriy Dolgoruki" je već na pomorskim probama a uskoro će mu se pridružiti i "Alexandar Nevski". Svaka od podmornica je sposobna da nosi po 16 Bulava-M balističkih raketa.


Cela vest ....



Topol-M, Bulava missiles to be core of Russian nuclear triad


Topol-M and Bulava ballistic missiles will constitute the backbone of Russia's nuclear triad, a senior defense ministry official said on Wednesday.

Russia's nuclear triad comprises land-based ballistic missile systems, nuclear-powered submarines equipped with sea-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers carrying nuclear bombs and nuclear-capable cruise missiles.

"Topol-M and Bulava ballistic missile systems will be the core of the Russian nuclear triad," said Maj. Gen. Alexander Shevchenko, in charge of Armed Forces' armaments maintenance and support.

At present, six types of silo-based and mobile ICBM system of the fourth and the fifth generation, including the heavy Voyevoda (SS-18 Satan), capable of carrying 10 warheads, and the Topol-M (Stalin) systems, are on combat duty with the Strategic Missile Forces.

According to open sources, the total arsenal of Russia's SMF comprises 538 ICBMs, including 306 SS-25 Topol (Sickle) missiles and 56 SS-27 Topol-M missiles.

In line with a new military doctrine, Russia will completely modernize the naval component of its nuclear triad by 2016.

Fourth-generation Borey-class nuclear-powered submarines armed with Bulava ballistic missiles will form the core of Russia's fleet of modern strategic submarines.

Shevchenko said the Russian Navy would commission two Borey-class nuclear submarines, Yury Dolgoruky and Alexander Nevsky, in the near future. Each submarine is capable of carrying up to 16 Bulava-M ballistic missiles.


* yurydolgorukiy1.jpg (56.25 KB. 640x361 - viewed 139 times.)


Russia will also modernize and expand its fleet of strategic bombers and create a national air-and-space defense network. According to various sources, the Russian Air Force currently deploys 141 Tu-22M3 Backfire bombers, 40 Tu-95MS Bear bombers, and 14 Tu-160 Blackjack planes.

Russia plans to build at least one new Tu-160 bomber every one or two years to increase the number of available aircraft to 30.

Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said in February that Russia would continue developing and modernizing its nuclear triad despite the current global economic crisis.

Izvor: en.rian.ru

« Last Edit: July 25, 2010, 03:22:28 pm by Rade » Logged
dexy
Prijatelj foruma
kapetan korvete
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 6 804



« Reply #7 on: July 17, 2009, 12:31:05 am »

16.07.2009.

Još jedan neuspešan test rakete Bulava, šesti neuspeh od jedanaest testova koliko je do sada izvršeno:

Quote
New Bulava missile test results in failure - Russian military
16/07/200921:17

MOSCOW, July 16 (RIA Novosti) - A scheduled test of Russia's new Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) on July 15 was a failure, the Defense Ministry's press service said on Thursday.

"The missile self-destructed after a malfunction of the first stage," the ministry said.

The missile was fired from the Dmitry Donskoi strategic nuclear-powered submarine in the White Sea, off Russia's northwest coast.

"A naval commission will investigate the cause of the missile's self-destruction," the ministry said.

Six of the 11 test launches of the Bulava have ended in failure. The launches were temporarily suspended and the missile components were tested in the labs after a series of previous failures.

Russia's Defense Ministry has said, though, it planned to conduct up to five Bulava tests in 2009 and put the SLBM into service by the end of this year.

The Bulava (SS-NX-30) SLBM carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has a range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage ballistic missile is designed for deployment on Borey-class Project 955 nuclear-powered submarines.

The Russian military expects the Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.

Izvor: RIA Novosti
Logged
Dreadnought
Global Moderator
kapetan bojnog broda
*
Offline Offline

Posts: 22 352



« Reply #8 on: July 17, 2009, 08:58:50 am »

Istu vest u domaćoj obradi ...

Neuspela proba ruske rakete „Bulava“
 
17.07.2009
MOSKVA – Najnovija proba savremene ruske balističke rakete Bulava nije uspela i projektil se sam uništio, saopštilo je rusko Ministarstvo odbrane.

Ministarstvo je navelo da je raketa lansirana sa podmornice Dmitrij Donskoi ali da se već u prvoj fazi dogodio kvar i aktivirao se mehanizam za samouništenje. Ministarstvo nije iznelo nikakve druge detalje.

To je bio sedmi neuspeh u 11 probnih lansiranja rakete Bulava i mogao bi da ima posledice za njene konstruktore, navodi agencija Ašošiejted pres (AP).

Ruske snage su ranije ove nedelje sprovele dve uspešne probe druge ne toliko savremene rakete, Sineva rakete.

I pored neuspelih pokušaja lansiranja Bulave ruski lideri su se hvalili njenom sposobnošću da prodre kroz antiraketnu odbranu i opisali je kao ključni deo budućeg ruskog nuklearnog naoružanja.

Potpredsednik vlade Sergej Ivanov, koji nadgleda napore da se unaprede neki od ruskih vojnih kapaciteta, rekao je prošlog meseca da će Bulava morati da prođe kroz još mnogo testova pre nego što bude spremna za upotrebu.

Vojni komentator Aleksander Golts rekao je da je neuspeh usled toga što se vodeći državni i vojni funkcioneri žure da unaprede zastarelu sovjetsku vojnu opremu da bi održali korak sa tehnološkim napretkom SAD.

Izvor: Beta-AP
Logged
dexy
Prijatelj foruma
kapetan korvete
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 6 804



« Reply #9 on: July 17, 2009, 08:01:27 pm »

Vojni komentator RIA Novosti Ilija Kramnik analizira projekat Bulave u svetlu poslednjeg neuspeha:

Quote
Bulava missile self-destructs due to malfunction
17/07/200918:59

MOSCOW. (RIA Novosti military commentator Ilya Kramnik) - The latest test launch of the new Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile has failed. The missile self-destructed after its first stage malfunctioned when it was fired on July 15 from the submerged Dmitry Donskoi strategic nuclear-powered submarine in the White Sea.

In all, seven of the 11 test launches of the Bulava have ended in failure.

Russian Navy chief Admiral Vladimir Kuroyedov ordered the creation of the Bulava SLBM in 1998 after three failed tests of the experimental Bark solid-fuel, sea-launched ballistic missile of the Makeyev design bureau. The order was placed with the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology, which promised to create a cheaper and smaller system comparable to another project by the Institute, the Topol-M ground-based ballistic missile.

Of the 11 test launches of one mockup and ten live missiles, only three test launches of live missiles succeeded. Therefore, the missile will not yet be put on combat duty.

The Bulava has a record low safety ratio, approximately 30%, which is even lower than the ratio of the D-19 launch system with the R-39 SLBM - nine failures out of 17 test launches. After the bugs had been removed from the D-19 system, it showed reliable safety - 11 successful launches out of 13.

Russia has an alternative to the Bulava missile, the RSM-54 Sineva (NATO codename: SS-N-23 Skiff), a third-generation, liquid-fuel ICBM that entered service with the Russian Navy in July 2007. It was created at the Makeyev design bureau and can carry four to 10 nuclear warheads, depending on the modification.

Currently, the Sineva missile has been supplied to three Project 667 submarines - K-114 Tula, K-117 Bryansk, and the recently modernized K-18 Karelia.

The Sineva has a longer range than the Bulava - 8,000 km, or 4,972 miles - and a larger payload. But the Bulava has a number of advantages, such as a much smaller takeoff trajectory, which complicates its interception by air defense systems, a smaller weight and dimensions, and solid-fuel engines. The latter simplifies its maintenance and use.

However, all these are only theoretical advantages compared to the Sineva, which has recently had two successful test launches, on July 13 and 14.

There are quite a few examples in Russian history when seemingly promising projects were curtailed after unsuccessful trials. One of the best-known examples is the N-1 booster designed to deliver 40-50 ton manned spacecraft into space, to orbit and then land on the Moon.

The stubbornness with which the military continue the test launches of the Bulava makes one think that it is not engineers, scientists and the military, but auditors who should analyze the reasons for its failure.

They should not look for "subversives" among workers and engineers, who are working hard to create the country's military systems for a meager monthly pay of 10,000-20,000 rubles ($631). Instead, they should call to account the highly paid directors of defense enterprises, who watched impassively as years of hard work and tens of billions of budgetary rubles were squandered.

In the Soviet period, when the government closely monitored research and technical projects using methods that have since been denounced as inhumane and unjustified, plant directors and heads of design bureaus were sometimes victimized for lesser failures.

Somehow, it seems improbable that anyone will be as much as fired for the failure of the Bulava.

The Bulava (SS-NX-30) missile carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has a range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage ballistic missile is designed for deployment on Borei-class Project 955 nuclear-powered submarines.
Logged
dexy
Prijatelj foruma
kapetan korvete
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 6 804



« Reply #10 on: July 22, 2009, 02:19:26 pm »

22.07.2009.

Juri Solomonov, generalni direktor i glavni konstruktor Moskovskog Instituta za termalne tehnologije je podneo ostavku na svoje pozicije u ovom institutu zbog neuspeha u projektu Bulava.

Quote
Russian Bulava missile designer quits after failed tests
22/07/200915:34

MOSCOW, July 22 (RIA Novosti) - The head of the research institute that designed the Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile resigned after a series of unsuccessful test launches, a defense industry official said on Wednesday.

"Yury Solomonov tendered his resignation right after the latest unsuccessful launch on July 15," the official said.

The Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos confirmed Solomonov's resignation on Wednesday and said a new head of the MITT would be appointed in September.

Solomonov, who occupied the posts of general director and general designer of the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology (MITT), is the most senior official to date to take responsibility for a serious setback in the development of Russia's nuclear deterrent.

The Bulava (SS-NX-30) submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has a range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage ballistic missile is designed for deployment on new Borey class nuclear-powered strategic submarines.

The Russian military expects the Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.

Six of the 11 Bulava test launches have been unsuccessful, including the latest test on July 15, when a Bulava SLBM self-destructed after blasting off from a nuclear submarine in the White Sea. The launches were suspended after the previous test, which ended in failure on December 23, 2008, and the missile components underwent lab tests.

Since the latest failure, the Russian Navy has reiterated that the tests will continue and Bulava missile will inevitably be deployed on Borey class submarines.


Izvor: RIA Novosti
Logged
dexy
Prijatelj foruma
kapetan korvete
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 6 804



« Reply #11 on: July 31, 2009, 02:30:32 pm »

31.07.2009.

Ruska vojska planira da nastavi sa testovima Bulave u avgustu, u zavisnosti od rezultata istrage.


* 155688422.jpg (5.55 KB. 360x203 - viewed 256 times.)


Quote
Russian military plans to resume Bulava missile tests in August
31/07/200914:59

KHABAROVSK, July 31 (RIA Novosti) - The Russian Defense Ministry said on Friday it would not abandon the development of the troubled Bulava ballistic missile, and that tests could resume in August.

The missile, which is being developed by the Moscow-based Institute of Thermal Technology (MITT), has suffered six failures in 11 tests. The general director of the institute resigned last week over the failures, which are believed to represent a severe setback in the development of Russia's nuclear deterrent.

"Everything depends on the conclusions reached by an investigation commission," Deputy Defense Minister Vladimir Popovkin said, adding that the probe could be finalized as early as next week.

The Bulava (SS-NX-30) submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has an estimated range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile is designed for deployment on new Borey class nuclear-powered strategic submarines.

The Russian military expects the Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.

Popovkin said more work has to be done to correct flaws in the Bulava's development, but that there was no alternative to the missile for a number of reasons.

"We have no choice - we already have one [Borey class] submarine, and have laid down more, so to start a new R&D project would be unrealistic," the official said.

Russia's newest Borey class strategic nuclear submarine, the Yury Dolgoruky, has completed the first round of sea trials in early July.

Two other Borey class nuclear submarines, the Alexander Nevsky and the Vladimir Monomakh, are currently under construction at the Sevmash plant and are expected to be completed in 2009 and 2011. Russia is planning to build eight of these submarines by 2015.

"A submarine costs about 60 billion rubles [about $2 bln], and the development of a new missile would cost up to 30 billion rubles [$1 bln] - these are serious expenses."

"But the most important thing is the years [spent on development], because we urgently need to change our sea-based strategic delivery vehicles," Popovkin said.

The future development of the Bulava has been questioned by some lawmakers and defense industry officials, who have suggested that all efforts should be focused on the existing Sineva SLBM.

The RSM-54 Sineva (NATO designation SS-N-23 Skiff) is a third-generation liquid-propellant submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) that entered service with the Russian Navy in July 2007. It can carry four or 10 nuclear warheads, depending on the modification, and has a maximum range of over 11,500 kilometers (about 7,100 miles).

Russia carried out successful test launches of two Sineva missiles from two Delta IV class nuclear-powered submarines in service with the Northern Fleet, located under an ice floe near the North Pole, on July 13-14.

The results of the tests confirmed that the Sineva would stay in service with the Russian Navy until at least 2015.


Izvor: RIA Novosti

« Last Edit: July 25, 2010, 08:54:59 am by Rade » Logged
dexy
Prijatelj foruma
kapetan korvete
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 6 804



« Reply #12 on: August 12, 2009, 03:05:43 pm »

Zašto ne leti “bulava”

Rusija danas želi da sačuva visoke strateške standarde u raketnom naoružanju koje je nekad imao Sovjetski Savez. „Bulava“ je prva raketa koju je Rusija pokušala da napravi u novim uslovima i logično je da nailazi na probleme

   
Jedanaesto po redu probno lansiranje rakete u Belom moru, sa atomske podmornice “Dmitrij Donski”, konstruisane specijalno za “bulavu”, završilo se samouništenjem rakete, i tako postalo peto neuspešno. Sa danom zakašnjenja objavljeno je da su prvi i drugi stepen rakete funkcionisali kako treba, ali je došlo do problema u funkcionisanju trećeg stepena, pa je raketa dobila komandu da se automatski uništi. Kasnije će se pojaviti informacija da je do problema došlo na prvoj etapi, samo dvadesetak sekundi posle lansiranja, što stavlja pod znak pitanja i one faze koje su konstruktori smatrali već završenim. Zato neki stručnjaci smatraju da postoji mogućnost da je u raketu ugrađen neki neispravan deo „zbog odsustva efikasne kontrole kvaliteta bilo od strane fabrike koja ga je izradila (delove za „bulavu“ pravi oko 650 fabrika) ili neposredno prilikom sastavljanja rakete“. Neimenovani predstavnik istražnih organa rekao je agenciji „RIA novosti“ da će „imajući u vidu važnost naoružavanja morskih strateških atomskih snaga Rusije novom raketom, i jedno i drugo biti smatrano diverzijom“.
Uprkos tome, ako bi se potvrdila verzija o neodgovornosti, to bi bilo i najbolje što se može desiti jer bi onda, u sledećim raketama, bez defektnog dela, sve bilo u redu i „bulava“ bi mogla da poleti do kraja ove godine, kako je i planirano.
Serija neuspelih lansiranja ruske superrakete dovela je i do prve žrtve - do ostavke Jurija Solomonova, direktora Instituta termotehnike koji je i konstruktor „bulave“. Za njega je to, očigledno, bilo pitanje časti, iako se zna da istorija raketne tehnike nikad nije bila glatka – rakete nikad nisu otpočetka letele po planu, a ako se uzme u obzir period trke u naoružanju između SSSR-a i SAD, dovodile su i do tragičnih slučajeva. Solomonov se, očigledno, morao osećati odgovornim zato što je upravo on ubedio rukovodstvo Rusije da odustane od skoro završene rakete „bark“ i započne izgradnju potpuno nove. Njegova ostavka izaziva gotovo isto onoliko dilema koliko i izgradnja „bulave“ – jedni je smatraju gestom odgovornog čoveka, dok drugi veruju da je to pokušaj izbegavanja odgovornosti.
„Situacija je složena ali nije beznadežna, zato što je problem u tehnologiji, a ne u ideji koju danas mnogi nazivaju nesavršenom pa čak i zločinačkom. Današnje mogućnosti tehnologija i proizvodnje, kao i kooperacija, mnogo su siromašnije nego što smo očekivali“ - rekao je Vladimir Visocki, glavnokomandujući vojnopomorskim snagama RF, odgovarajući na pitanje da li će neuspesi dovesti do obustavljanja čitavog projekta.
Rusija danas želi da sačuva visoke strateške standarde u raketnom naoružanju koje je nekad imao Sovjetski Savez. Ipak raspad zemlje morao je da ostavi traga i u toj oblasti. Velike vojne fabrike su propadale, stručnjaci su odlazili, proizvodni lanci su prekidani, a mnoge tehnologije su izgubljene... Gordost ruske vojske, rakete „S- 300”, “S-400”, „buk“, „topolj“, „sinjeva“ – sve su to sovjetski pronalasci. „Bulava“ je prva raketa koju je Rusija pokušala da napravi u novim uslovima i logično je da nailazi na probleme. Danas se za naoružanje izdvaja daleko manje sredstava, pa nema više ni onako dugih perioda priprema kakvi su bili obavezni u SSSR-u. Tada se morao proći čitav niz etapa koje se sada potpuno preskaču, a smanjen je i broj probnih lansiranja. Sovjetske rakete morale su imati najmanje 20 probnih lansiranja i smatralo se normalnim da polovina od toga bude neuspešna. Posledica toga je i da se sada problemi, umesto u nekoj od početnih faza, otkrivaju tek na kraju.
Ali istorija „bulave“ zanimljiva je i iz drugih razloga, ona, moglo bi se reći, podseća skoro na detektivski roman. Jurij Solomonov, konstruktor čuvenog “Topolja M” i direktor Instituta termotehnike u Moskvi, suočen sa nedostatkom novca devedesetih godina, i svestan da to može da dovede do gašenje Instituta u kome su „rođene“ najbolje sovjetske suvozemne rakete, a znajući da od države može dobiti novac samo za konkretan projekat, odlučio je 1998. godine da u kratkom vremenskom periodu napravi perspektivnu morsku balističku raketu za atomske podmornice projekta 955 tipa „borej“, koje su se tada upravo gradile u Institutu „Makejev“, specijalizovanom za pomorske rakete. Ministarstvu odbrane on je predložio nešto manje efikasnu, ali bezbedniju raketu, lakšu za manevrisanje, manje osetljivu na odbrambene sisteme protivnika i ekonomičniju od rakete „bark“ na kojoj je upravo gradio „Makejev“. Čuveni raketni kompleks „Topolj-M“ bio bi osnova za novu raketu pomorskog baziranja koja bi koristila čvrsto gorivo i time ispunila davnu težnju ministarstva da unificira morske i suvozemne rakete. U tom trenutku, kao ni sada, takve rakete, osim SAD i Francuske, niko nije mogao da napravi. S obzirom na to da je tada već bilo jasno da neće biti atomskog rata, Ministarstvo odbrane opredelilo se za raketu koja je bila manje efikasna od „barka“, ali i bezbednija.
Podržavši taj projekat, Ministarstvo je sahranilo dva pokolenja atomskih strateških raketonosaca: cikloskopski brod projekta 941 tipa „tajfun“ i novi, još nezavršeni projekat 955 tipa „borej“.
“Tajfun“ je zbog svojih razmera dospeo u Ginisovu knjigu rekorda. U to vreme nije bilo moćnijeg i opasnijeg broda za protivnika. Salva od 20 stotonih raketa RSM-52 (sa po 10 atomskih bojevih glava na svakoj) sa palube jednog od tada šest postojećih „tajfuna“ mogla je da zbriše s lica zemlje cele države, ako ne i kontinente. Američki pisac Tom Klensi napisao je o tome roman „Lov na Crveni oktobar“ koji je godinama bio bestseler.
Sudbina „boreja“ je drugačija. U okviru tog projekta pravljena je raketa „bark“, teška sto tona i sposobna da dovede do cilja 10 atomskih bojevih glava. U trenutku kad je Solomonov predložio novi projekat ona je bila, prema različitim verzijama, gotova 70 ili 80 procenata. Ali prva probna lansiranja su takođe bila neuspešna. Konstruktori smatraju da se to, uz određenu upornost, moglo ispraviti. Umesto toga, pod uticajem konstruktora čuvenog Topolja-M, koji nije imao nikakvog iskustva sa pomorskim raketama, planovi za izgradnju podmornica „borej“ prepravljeni su tako da podmornice mogu da nose novu raketu, koja je umesto 100, težila samo 30 tona...
Uprkos početnim proračunima, ispostavilo se da izgradnja „bulave“ Rusiju veoma mnogo košta. Prema tvrdnji Sergeja Ivanova, vicepremijera, „više od 40 posto budžeta ministarstva odbrane ide na razvoj flote, i to uglavnom na strateške podmornice. To su stotine milijardi rubalja“. Koji deo toga ide za „bulavu“, smatra se državnom tajnom, ali se nezvanično govori o više od 10 milijardi dolara.
„Bulava“ je od samog početka imala dosta protivnika među stručnjacima koji su od samog početka izražavali skepsu prema takvoj raketi jer je u njoj trebalo spojiti delove suvozemnih raketa i raketa predviđenih za baziranje na podmornicama. Zadatak nije nemoguć, ali je očigledno, prilično komplikovan. Pored toga, smatrali su i Institut i konstruktora nekompetentnim za rakete pomorskog baziranja, pa su neuspesi u probnim lansiranjima vratili na dnevni red pitanje obustavljanja projekta. Umesto njega, predlaže se modernizovanje programa rakete „sinjeva“ proizvedene pre trideset godina, koja još uvek čini osnovu raketnog naoružanja Rusije.
Ministarstvo odbrane, međutim, ne odustaje, „sinjeva“ je još uvek dobra za zadržavanje protivnika, ali nije oružje 21. veka, - smatraju vojni stručnjaci. Oni tvrde da upravo postojanje „sinjeve“ koja je na bojevom dežurstvu, daje šansu da se nastave ispitivanja nove “superrakete”. Rezultati poslednjeg pokušaja se analiziraju, a moguće je da će broj planiranih proba u 2009. biti uvećan, umesto planiranih tri do četiri, do minimum pet.
Zanimljivo je da je pretposlednje lansiranje bilo potpuno zadovoljavajuće – strateška raketna krstarica „Dmitrij Donski“ lansirala je iz akvatorije Belog mora „bulavu“ ispod vode. I sve je bilo kako je planirano. Lansirani blokovi su stigli na kamčatski raketni poligon Kura. Tada je i počelo da se govori da će nakon poslednjeg „ispita“, - nedavnog lansiranja, početi serijska proizvodnja.
Predstavnik Glavnog štaba Vojnopomorske flote potvrdio je ovih dana da će „bulava“ obavezno poleteti, mada s malim zakašnjenjem - ranije je bilo planirano da stigne na podmornice do kraja ove godine.

Karakteristike „bulave“

Međukontinentalna balistička raketa morskog baziranja R 30 3M30 „bulava-30“, u međunarodnim ugovorima upisana je kao RSM -56, a po klasifikaciji NATO, to je SS-NX-30. „Bulava“ može da leti maksimalno osam hiljada kilometara, startna masa joj je 36,8 tona, a težina koju odbacuje je 1,15 hiljada kilograma.
Raketa može da nosi 6-10 hiperzvučnih atomskih blokova od po 100-150 kilotona individualnog navođenja koji mogu da manevrišu, da menjaju trajektoriju po visini i po kursu. Raketa se može ispaliti i dok se podmornica kreće ispod vode.
Motori prvog i drugog stepena su na tvrdo gorivo, treći na tečno - da bi se obezbedila brzina potrebna za manevrisanje na etapi odvajanja bojevih blokova.
Dužina rakete u kontejneru za lansiranje je 12,1 metara, dužina bez glave - 11,5.

Podmornica nosača raketa

Po planu predviđena je za naoružanje atomskih raketnih podmornica projekta 955 „Borej“. Glavna podmornica tog projekta „Jurij Dolgoruki“ ovih dana je uspešno prošla fabričke probe. Još dve slične raketne krstarice takođe nazvane po imenima starih ruskih kneževa – „Aleksandar Nevski“ i „Vladimir Monomah“ napravljene su u preduzeću „Sevmaš“ u Severodvinsku 2004. i 2006. godine. Za ispitivanje „bulave“ napravljena je atomska raketna podmornica „Dmitrij Donski“ projekta 941. Do 2015. treba da bude izgrađeno osam takvih podmornica. Ispitivanja „bulave“ obavljaju se sa modernizovane strateške podmornice „Dmitrij Donski“, projekta 941 „ajkula“, po NATO klasifikaciji – „tajfun“.
Podvodni nosači raketa projekta 955 trebalo bi da postanu osnova pomorskog dela strateških atomskih snaga Rusije u XXI veku, mada sa njihovom izgradnjom sve ide daleko teže nego što je planirano. Rokovi za spuštanje “Jurija Dolgorukog” na vodu se pomeraju još od 2002. godine.

Ljubinka Milinčić


Izvor: NIN
Logged
dexy
Prijatelj foruma
kapetan korvete
*
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 6 804



« Reply #13 on: August 14, 2009, 02:17:47 pm »

14.08.2009.

Sergej Kovaljov, ruski dizajner podmornica iz dizajnerskog biroa Rubi tvrdi da će Bulava uspešno ući u upotrebu. On odbacije kritike za dosadašnje neuspehe, tvrdeći da su dizajneri rakete zbog nedostatka novca bili prinuđeni da preskoče neke test faze, kao što su podvodno lansiranje sa platforme koja je ostala u Ukrajini, ili sa zemlje iz silosa koji nije izgrađen zbog nedostatka novca. Takođe je rekao da su prethodni neuspesi povezani sa lošim kvalitetom delova koje su isporučili neki subkontraktori, a to je, smatra on, zbog nedostatka vojnih kontrolora u tim fabrikama i nedostatka kontrole kvaliteta koji ne bi dali odobrenje tim delovima za ugradnju.

Quote
Russian submarine designer certain of Bulava missile success
14/08/200916:41

MOSCOW, August 14 (RIA Novosti) - Russia's troubled Bulava ballistic missile will be developed and put into service with the Navy, the general designer of the Rubin design bureau for marine engineering has said.

The missile, which is being developed by the Moscow-based Institute of Thermal Technology (MITT), has suffered six failures in 11 tests. The general director of the institute has resigned over the failures, seen as a setback in the development of Russia's nuclear deterrent.

Sergei Kovalyov, who helped design three generations of Russia's strategic submarines, said the testing of Bulava, which is the most advanced submarine-launched ballistic missile ever developed in Russia, is a very complex process and takes time and effort to succeed.

"Beyond any doubt, Bulava is a much more sophisticated missile [than the previous missiles]. Although we lag behind in the electronics, it uses far more sophisticated materials and components. Solid-fuel missiles are used around the world. The Topol [land-based missile] flies. I am convinced that Bulava will fly as well," Kovalyov said in an interview published by the Rossiiskaya Gazeta government daily on Thursday.

The Bulava (SS-NX-30) submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has an estimated range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile is designed for deployment on new Borey class nuclear-powered strategic submarines.

The Russian military expects the Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.

The expert dismissed criticism over serious problems in the Bulava missile testing process, saying the designers were forced to bypass required testing stages due to a lack of funds and the lack of necessary facilities.

"In Soviet times, during the first stage of trials, dummy missiles were fired from a floating launch pad in Balaklava [a town on the Crimean Peninsula, which now belongs to Ukraine] to test the underwater segment of the trajectory," Kovalyov said.

"After that, similar tests were conducted on board a re-equipped submarine. They were followed by a number of launches from a land-based launch pad in Nenoks in the Arkhangelsk region to test the flight range," he said.

In the case of the Bulava missile, "there were no conditions to carry out tests at a floating launch pad in Balaklava, and there was no opportunity to conduct ground-based tests of the missile either, because the funds needed to build launch pads and a new silo were not provided."

The expert also complained about the poor quality of missile components provided by a large number of sub-contractors, and the absence of military representatives at manufacturing plants to ensure quality control.

"Some of the failed launches were caused by faulty components, which the military reps would never allow to pass," Kovalyov said.

He also dismissed as "pure nonsense" media speculation that the U.S. was interfering with Bulava tests by using powerful radars or laser beams.

"No country in the world possesses such a capability," the designer said.

The Russian Defense Ministry said in July the Bulava tests could resume as early as in August.


Izvor: RIA Novosti
« Last Edit: August 14, 2009, 02:21:54 pm by dexy » Logged
Dreadnought
Global Moderator
kapetan bojnog broda
*
Offline Offline

Posts: 22 352



« Reply #14 on: August 16, 2009, 05:40:43 pm »

14.08.2009
Rusija bi mogla da obustavi razvoj interkontinentalne balističke raketa morskog baziranja R 30 3M30 „Bulava-30“ i da optira neki drugi sistem ukoliko budući testovi i dalje budu neuspešni, saopštila je agencija Interfax u petak citirajući fabričke izvore.

Cela vest ....


Quote
Russia could scrap troubled sea missile

MOSCOW (Reuters) - Russia may halt the development of its accident-prone Bulava sea-based nuclear missiles and opt for another system if future tests fail to work successfully, Interfax reported Friday, quoting industry sources.

Russia has pressed ahead with the Bulava as a crucial plank of its strategic defense that has become a symbol of the country's attempts to create a new generation of post-Soviet weaponry to match Washington's advanced arsenal.

Instead, the Sineva missile that has already entered service could be installed on new Borei-class submarines intended to carry the Bulava, Interfax reported.

"The Sineva, which was adopted in 2007, is the most probable alternative to the Bulava," Interfax quoted a source in the rocket and space industry as saying.

"If Bulava tests continue to fail, this program will most likely be suspended and the Borei class submarines will be adapted for the Sineva. This procedure will be expensive, but there is just no more acceptable option for such a scenario," the source was quoted as saying.

The submarine-launched Bulava is intended to carry up to 10 warheads for up to 8,000 km (5,000 miles) and is designed to be deployed on Russia's newest Project 955 nuclear submarines of the Borei class. Six of its 11 test launches have failed.

The Sineva, advertised by the Russia military as one element of a new generation of Russian strategic weapons capable of surpassing any missile defense system, has already successfully hit targets at a distance of 11,547 km (7,200 miles).

The Russian military says Sineva missiles will be operational at least until 2030.

Russia's war with neighboring Georgia last August exposed a Soviet-style army with obsolete equipment, prompting the government to embark on an ambitious program to modernize its military, analysts have said.

The country relies heavily on its still-formidable nuclear triad of ground-based, submarine-launched and bomber-carried missiles.
http://www.reuters.com/article/scien...57D1SC20090814
Logged
Pages:  [1] 2 3 4 5   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by MySQL Powered by PHP Powered by SMF 1.1.19 | SMF © 2013, Simple Machines
Simple Audio Video Embedder

SMFAds for Free Forums
Valid XHTML 1.0! Valid CSS!
Page created in 0.032 seconds with 25 queries.