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Author Topic: Pilotsko uputstvo za De Havilland Mosquito FB VI  (Read 3854 times)
 
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« on: October 22, 2008, 08:15:20 pm »

 Note .—Throughout this publication the following conventions apply:—
   (a) The numbers quoted in brackets after items in the text, refer to the illustrations in Part V.
   (b) Unless otherwise stated, all speeds quoted are indicated airspeeds.
   (c) Words in capital letters indicate the actual markings on the controls concerned.
   INTRODUCTION
   The Mosquito HB Mark 6 is a fighter-bomber aircraft and is powered by two Merlin 23 or 25 engines, driving three-bladcd. Hydromatic propellers. There is provision for the alternative carriage of a long-range tank, a bomb or depth charge, or for the simultaneous carriage of R.P. and a 100-gallon drop tank under each wing. An internal bomb load can also be carried.
   FUEL AND OIL SYSTEMS
   1. Fuel tanks
   Fuel is carried in four outer wing tanks, four inner wing tanks, and two centre tanks. In addition a fuselage (long-range) tank can be carried and a drop tank fitted under each wing.
   The fuel capacities are as follows :—
   MAIN SUPPLY
   Centre tanks ......... 50 gallons*
   Inner wing tanks......... 286 gallons
   OUTER TANKS ......... 116 gallons
   Total ... ... ... ... ... 452 gallons
   Long-range tank ......... 63 gallons
   Wing drop tanks (2 x 100 gallons) ......... 200 gallons
   Total fuel capacity ......... 715 gallons
   The centre tanks and the inner wing tanks supply both engines through a fuel collector box when the fuel cocks, behind the pilot's scat, are set to MAIN SUPPLY. If a long-range lank is fitted this also supplies both engines through the fuel collector box with the fuel cocks at MAIN SUPPLY and the immersed fuel pump switch (65) on the electrical panel in the "ON" position. When the fuel cocks are set to OUTER TANKS the port outer wing tanks supply No. 1 engine only and the starboard outer wing tanks No. 2 engine only. Fuel is transferred from the wing drop tanks to the OUTER TANKS by air pressure from the port vacuum pump controlled by a transfer cock behind ihe pilot's seat. If the transfer is not automatic this cock is marked JETTISON TANKS FUEL TRANSFER : in this case the outer tanks must be nearly emptied before transferring, or fuel will be lost by venting to atmosphere. If Mod. 613 is incorporated, the cock is marked ON FOR AUTO TRANSFER and it may be left on whilst using fuel from the outer tanks. Transfer will then be automatic until the wing drop tanks are empty when the gauge will show a fall in the contents of their respective outer tanks.
   A premature fall, in the early part of a flight at altitude, will indicate an interruption of flow : after an interval which will vary with atmospheric conditions, this will be cured and the fall in the fuel level will stop. The cock should be left ON during an interruption of flow, but must be turned OFF on completion of transfer.
   2. Fuel tank pressurising
   (i) The permanent tanks of the MAIN SUPPLY are provided with automatically regulated pressurising to reduce fuel vaporisation at high altitudes. When the PRESSURE VENTING cock, behind the pilot's scat is ON an aneroid operated valve so cont/ols pressure from the starboard vacuum pump that whilst none is admitted at low altitudes, the amount is progressively increased as height is gained. When it is OFF. all tanks are vented to atmosphere at all altitudes.
   (ii) When Mod. 443 is incorporated the pressure venting cock is usually wired in the ON position because the pressurising is then extended to the long-range tank. When this modification has not been incorporated it is advisable to turn the cock OFF whilst actually using the long-range tank because the immersed fuel pump might not be able to overcome pressurising in the fuel collector box sufficiently to ensure a supply of fuel from the long-range tank.
   (iii) Pressurising impairs the self-scaling properties of the tanks and should be turned OFF in emergency. If the cock is locked ON the locking wire can easily be broken.
   3. Immersed fad pump
   When the long-range tank is fitted an immersed fuel booster pump is provided to feed the fuel to the engine via the collector box. A fuel pressure warning light (21) on the starboard side of the front cockpit coaming, indicates when the long-range tank is nearly empty : the immersed fuel pump switch must then be turned to OFF.
   4. Fad contents gauges
   Three gauges (71. 72. 73) are positioned on the electrical panel. They will indicate as follows when the electrical services switch (20). linked with the ignition switches, is on.
   The aft gauge (71) .. the outer wing tanks
   The centre gauge (72)... the centre tanks and long-range tank when fitted
   The forward gauge (73) ..the inner wing tanks
   5. Fuel pressure warning lights
   Two fuel pressure warning lights (5) are fitted on the left-hand side of the instrument panel. They light when the pressure drops to 3 lb./sq.in. (These lights will be deleted by Mod. 1243.)
   6. Priming system
   A priming pump is fitted in each engine nacelle and is accessible through a hinged flap on the starboard side. Priming cocks are fitted in each nacelle, and allow fuel to be drawn cither from the outer tanks, or from an external supply of high-volatility fuel for cold weather starting.
   7 Oil and coolant systems
   (i) Oil is supplied from two self-sealing tanks of 15 gallons oil capacity and 2½ gallons air space ; one in each engine nacelle.
   (ii) There are no separate oil cooler controls. Electro-pneumatically operated radiator shutters are fitted at the rear of the combined engine coolani radiator and oil cooler, inboard of each engine. Airflow through the radiator ducts is controlled by these shutters which are operated by two-way switches (15) marked RAD. FLAP-CLOSED (up)—OPEN (down). Thermostatic and viscosity valves in both coolant and oil cooler systems respectively, ensure rapid "warming up" to predetermined temperatures.
MAIN SERVICES


   8. Hydraulic system
   (i) Two engine-driven pumps, one on each engine, supply hydraulic pressure for the operation of the :—
   Undercarriage and tailwheel
   Flaps
   Bomb doors.
   The system will function on one pump, but only at a reduced rate.
   (ii) A handpump for operating all the services through the normal system, when the engine pumps arc not running is mounted in a socket (55) beneath the pilot's seat. The detachable handle is stowed on the cockpit door. The approximate time to lower the undercarriage by hand-pump is four minutes.
   (iii) The handpump may also be used to operate the separate emergency undercarriage lowering system, when the emergency selector valve, marked PUSH FOR EMERGENCY, on the right of the pilot's seat is pushed down.
   9. Pneumatic system
   (i) An air compressor on No. 1 engine charges an air bottle for the operation of the brakes and guns, and the electro-pneumatic rams for:—
   Radiator shutters
   Automatic supercharger gear change
   Carburettor air-intake filter control.
   (ii) The available pressure is shown on I he pneumatic system and brakes triple pressure gauge (36) and should record 200 lb./su. in. in flight. All services except the brakes arc cut oft by a pressure maintaining valve if the supply falls below 150 Ib./sq. in.
   (iii) Two vacuum pumps, one driven by each engine, together operate the flight instruments. If either pump should fail it is automatically isolated from the suction system. Each pump can be proved on the ground by alternatively starting the port and starboard engine first and checking tbat the artificial horizon erects properly.
   10. Electrical system
   A generator on No. 2 engine charges a battery which supplies electrical power at 24 volts for:—
   Automatic superchargers
   Air intake filters
   Radiator shutters
   Guns
   Radio (Gee 11, G.P. H.F. communication set. V.H.F., I.F.F.)
   Instrument and cockpit lighting
   Air recognition, identification, navigation lights and landing lamp.
   Engine starters and booster coils
   Immersed fuel pump
   Feathering pump motors
   Undercarriage warning lights and horn
   Oil dilution valves
   Fuel pressure warning lights
   Fire-extinguishers
   Windscreen wiper
   Pressure-head heater
   Cine-camera
   Reflector gunsight
   Bomb selection, fuzing and release gear
   R.P. release.
   A warning light (60) on the electrical panel shows when the generator is not delivering current. On the ground with the engine stopped, the light will be on so long as the aircraft battery is connected. The current consumed is negligible.
   A ground starter battery socket is provided on the port side of rear fuselage.


* 1.jpg (31.35 KB. 654x405 - viewed 125 times.)


 The fuel capacities are given in Imperial gallons.
- 1 Imperial gallon=4.546 L ; 1 US gallon=3.785 L

« Last Edit: July 29, 2010, 11:16:56 am by Broker, Reason: ubačena slika u atačment » Logged
MOTORISTA
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« Reply #1 on: October 22, 2008, 08:16:10 pm »

   11. Flying controls
   The flying controls are conventional and the rudder pedals are adjustable for reach.
   12. Ely ing controls locking gear
   The rudder pedals are locked by a spool which fits between them and is secured by a wing nut. The spool is connected to the control column locking tube by a cable so that one cannot be removed without the other. Controls are locked in the neutral position. The gear is stowed in the fuselage opposite the rear natch. It should be ensured that the locking pins are attached to the gear.
   13. Trimming tab controls
   The elevator trimming tab control is on the left of the pilot's scat; the indicator (42) is on the cockpit port wall. The rudder trimming tab control and indicator (19) are mounted on the front cockpit coaming. The aileron trimming tab control and indicator are mounted on the lower right-hand side of the instrument panel. All trimming tab controls work in the natural sense.
   14. Undercarriage
   (i) The undercarriage selector lever (32) has a safety catch which must be released before UP can be selected. The selector should always be moved smartly to the UP or DOWN positions, as it may become locked if it is moved slowly.
   (ii) The selector should return automatically to neutral when the UP or DOWN operation is completed. If the lever does not return when it is certain that the operation is complete, it should be returned by hand If the lever returns prematurely, and the undercarriage indicator shows that ihe wheels arc not locked UP or DOWN, the selector lever should be held UP or DOWN for not more than 5 seconds. This will occur only when the system is not properly adjusted.
   (iii) In cold weather before landing, the system should be exercised a few times by alternatively selecting UP or DOWN ; owing to the hydraulic oil congealing, when the undercarriage selector is pui DOWN the main wheels may come down and the selector return to neutral before hydraulic pressure reaches the tailwheel jack.
   (iv) It is not desirable 10 hold the selector DOWN for longer than 5 seconds as this subjects the lines to high pressures.
   15. Undercarriage position indicator
   (i) The undercarriage position indicator (38) operates when the electrical .services switch is on.
   (ii) The indicator lights are fitted with dimmer screens for night flying. Indications are :
   Main wheels locked up ... No lights
   Main wheels locked up but throttles less than ¼ open ......... 2 red lights
   Main wheels beiwcen UP and DOWN 2 red lights
   Main wheels locked down ... . 2 green lights
   When the main wheels are lowered, the red lights do not go out until the down locks are engaged.
   (iii) There is no tailwheel indicator.
   16. The undercarriage warning horn
   The undercarriage warning horn sounds when the main wheels are not Io ked down and the throttles are less than ¼ open.
   17. Undercarriage ground locking
   (j) Ground locking caps are stowed in a bag on the rear bulkhead of each nacelle, and should be fitted after landing in place of the dust caps which cover the end of the locking latches.
   (ii) If the aircraft is taken off with the locking caps on, and an attempt is made to retract the undercarriage, the tail-wheel only will retract; therefore, the undercarriage selector lever should be moved to the DOWN position, allowed to return to neutral and then held down for 5 seconds before landing to ensure that the taiiwheel is down.
   18. Flaps control and indicator
   Operation of the flaps is controlled by the lever (29) marked F to the right of the undercarriage selector lever. A safety catch must be pushed to the right before flaps DOWN can be selected. The selector lever should return automatically to neutral on completion of a full operation. Any flap angle up to 45° can be obtained by returning the lever to neutral when the desired angle is reached according to the position indicator (37). The maximum flap angle is 45° although the gauge is marked up to 70°.
   19. Wheel brakes
   The brakes control lever (46) and parking catch are on the control column. Differential braking is afforded by means of a relay valve connected to the rudder pedals. The pressure at each brake should be between 80 to 100 Ib./sq. in.
ENGINE CONTROLS


   20 Throttle controls.
   The black friction not is for throttles the (target) white one for the propeller levers. Normally the throttles can be pushed forward to the stops only. When the small catches on the levers are squeezed the throttles can be pushed fully forward. Merlin 25 engines give - 12lb/sq.in. boost at the stops and + 18 lb./sq.in. when fully forward: this is no cut-out. Merlin 23 engines may still be fitted. They give + 9 lb/sq.in at the stops and + 12 lb./sq.in. at he fully forward position. If the boost control cut-out is pulled, +14 lb./sq.in. Will be obtained in low gear.
   De-rated engines of either mark give + 9lb./sq.in. in boost at the stops and -12 lb./sq.in. in at fully forward position and do not have a cut- out.
   21. Mixture and slow running cut-out controls
   (i) S.U. carburettors arc fitted and mixture is automatically controlled by the boost pressure : an economical mixture is obtained when this, is less than i 7 lb./sq. in.
   (ii) Spring loaded slow running cut-out controls, mounted above the fuel cock controls should be pulled out to stop the engines, after which they should be released smartly.
   22. Propeller controls
   The r.p.m. control levers (49) which vary the governed pilch from 3.000-1.800 r.p.m. are fitted on the side of the engine controls hox. The feathering pushbuttons (25) arc on'thc right-hand front panel. The friction control lever (50) is the larger white knob on the engine controls box.
   23. Superchargers control
   When the superchargers gear change switch (51) is set to MOD, the superchargers will remain in low gear at all altitudes. When this switch is set to AUTO the electro-pneumatic rams are controlled by an aneroid, and will automatically engage high gear when climbing, at approximately (he following heights :
   Merlin 23-8.750 ft.
   Merlin 25-7.000 ft.
   These heights are the correct supercharger gear change heights only when using maximum power (operational necessity) When using low power settings, the selection of high gear should be carried out by switching to AUTO as recommended in para 41 When descending in ALTO, low gear will be engaged at sliehtlv lower altitudes than those quoted above.
   Failure of the electrical or pneumatic system will cause the superchargers to remain in, or return to, low gear.
   24. Radiator shutters
   The radiator shutters arc controlled by two switches (15) which operate electro-pneumatic rams. It is not possible to .set the shuuers at intermediate positions between fully open and shut
   25. Carburettor air-intake fitters
   Air-intake filters are provided. They are controlled by a switch (16) beside the radiator shutter switches, or when Mod. 862 is incorporated by two pushbuttons fitted below the coaming on the right-hand side of the instrument panel when the fillers are controlled manually by a projecting pushbutton marked FILTER OUT and a flush pushbutton marked FILTER IN. The relay control is interconected with the undercarriage so that when the undercarriage is down the filter is automatically brought into operation irrespective of the position of the push-buttons, unless the FILTER OUT pushbutton is kept pressed. After take-off and well clear of the dust-laden zone the projecting pushbutton should be pressed in for FILTF.R OUT.
   If required FILTER IN may be selected at any time during night, though normally FILTER OUT should be used.
OPERATIONAL CONTROLS


   26. Bomb doors
   The bomb doors selector lever (34) marked B on the left of the undercarriage selector lever, should return automatically to neutral on completion of a full operation. A warning light (26) on the bomb control panel indicates when the bomb doors are fully open.
   27. Bomb selection, fusing and release
   (i) The panel on the right-hand side of ihc instrument panel provides the switching arrangements for the fuselage* bomb, wing bombs and wing drop tanks. The switch (28) at the top marked BUTTON CHANGEOVER CAMERA and BOMBS or TANKS permits the pushbutton (45) on the control column to be used for operating cither the cine-camera or the bomb release. The bombs cannot be selected or fused until the BUTTON CHANGEOVER has been moved to BOMBS or TANKS. For emergency bomb release see para. 61.
   28. Cine-camera operation
   The cine-camera master switch (61) must be ON and the button changeover switch set to CAMERA before the camera can be operated by the release button or by pressing either of the gun-firing triggers.
   29. R.P. and gun controls
   (i) Before the guns can be fired the gun master switch (33) must be set to FIRE.
   The 20 mm. guns are fired by a forefinger operated trigger, the machine guns by a thumb-operated trigger (44) both on the control column. The gun heating control is on the right of the observer's seat. Minimum pneumatic pressure required for operation is 200 Ib.'sq. in.
   (ii) The R.P. PAIRS—SALVO switch is mounted adjacent to the gunsight and should be switched to the required position before the MASTFR SWITCH is turned ON. The MASTER SWITCH is on the R.P. Auto-selector unit, which is mounted on the cockpit port wall aft of the engine controls box. The firing pushbutton is mounted on No. 2 engine throttle lever.
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« Reply #2 on: October 22, 2008, 08:17:29 pm »

COCKPIT EQUIPMENT


   30. Oxygen
   A Mk. IIB oxygen regulator (35) is fitted together with a flow selector switch and indicator.
   31. Heating
   The cockpit heat control is behind the pilot's seat, and is rotated forward to permit hot air from the port coolant radiator to enter the cockpit.
   32. Cooling
   There are two adjustable ventilators (24) by means of which cool air can be admitted to the cockpit.
   33. Windscreen wiper and de-icer
   The windscreen wiper should not be used on a dry screen, it may injure the surface. When not in use make sure that the rheostat (78) is turned fully off. otherwise, current may be wasted.
   A windscreen de-icer pump is mounted beneath the aileron trimming tab control.
   34. Lighting
   Three floodlights with adjacent rheostats, light the instrument panel and compass.
   They are controlled by separate dimmer switches. There is a cockpit roof light, and provision is also made for UV/red and emergency lighting.
   35. Night flying screens
   The generator (60) and fuel pressure (5) warning lights are fitted with dimmer screens. When flying by day, these screens must be opened ; otherwise, indications will not be noticed.
HANDLING


   36. Management of the fuel system
   (i) Start the engines on the outer tanks, warm up on the main tanks, taxy and take-off on the fullest tanks.
   (ii) Use of the outer tanks.
   (a) Do not rely on outer tanks when flying al low altitudes ; their capacity is small and the gauges diminish in accuracy as the fuel level falls.
   (b) The outer tanks are pressurised only when transfer of fuel is taking place from the wing drop tanks. When wing drop tanks are not used vaporisation may cause engine cutting at high altitudes particularly in tropical climates.
   Interruptions of flow are most likely to take place in the early part of a flight at high altitude. When at dispersal every effort should be made to shield the aircraft from the direct rays of ihe sun. as the fuel should be kept as cool as possible.
   (c) Engine cutting may occur during evasive action, at high power at altitude, and whenever the tanks are less than half full.
   (d) It is not possible to cross-feed from the outer tanks should one engine fail and they should therefore be used first. When they are nearly empty, change to the main supply.
   (iii) Use of the wing drop tanks
   (a) The contents of both wing drop tanks are transferred by pressure from the exhaust side of the port vacuum pump. Failure of this pump will be masked by the automatic isolation valve, unless failure of No. I engine makes it obvious. Failure of this pump will only be revealed by the non-transfer of the contents of the wing drop tanks when transfer is selected.
   (b) The contents of the wing drop tanks should be trans-ferred as early as possible to avoid loss of fuel if they should have to be jettisoned. In the event of failure of the port vacuum pump, fuel cannot be transferred, nor can it be cross-fed, in the event of engine failure; therefore, as soon after take-off as convenient turn on the transfer cock. When the wing drop tanks have been emptied, shown by a fall in the contents of the outer tanks., turn off the transfer cock.
   Continue on the outer tanks until they are empty, then change to main supply.
   (c) If automatic transfer is not provided, sufficient fuel must be used from ihc outer tanks before attempting to transfer, or fuel may be lost through the atmospheric vents. To transfer fuel, change to main supply and turn on the transfer cock. When the outer tanks are full, turn oil the transfer cock and revert to outer tanks. Repeat the sequence unlil the wing drop tanks are empty.
   (iv) Use of the long-range rank
   Select mam supply and turn on the immersed fuel pump. As soon as the warning light comes on the immersed fuel pump should be switched off.
   37. Starting and warming up the engines
   (i) After carrying out the external, internal and cockpit checks laid down in ihe Check List, confirm :—
   Main fuel cocks ... Outer tanks
   Throttles ... ... ½ in. open
   R.p.m. control levers ... Maximum r.p.m. position
   Superchargers ... Mod. (low gear)
   Radiator shutters ... CLOSED
   Pressure venting cock ... ON
   Fuel transfer cock ... OFF
   Immersed fuel pump switch OFF
   Bomb doors ... ... Shut, selector neutral
   (ii) If the engines are to be started from an external source, have a ground starter battery plugged in. and then for each engine in turn :—
   (iii) The ground crew should work the priming pump until fuel reaches the priming nozzles ; this can be judged by a sudden increase in resistance
   (iv) Switch on the ignition and press the starter and booster-coil pushbuttons. Turning periods must not exceed 20 seconds with 30 second intervals.
   (v) The ground crew should work the priming pump as rapidly and vigorously as possible while the engine is being turned.
   (vi) At air temperatures below freezing it will probably be necessary to continue priming after the engine has fired and until it picks up on the carburettor.
   (vii) As soon as the engine is running satisfactorily, release the starter and booster-coil pushbuttons and instruct the ground crew to screw down the priming pump and remove the ground starter battery if used.
   (viii) After the oil pressure has become steady, open the throttle slowly and warm up at 1.200 r.p.m.
   (ix) While warming up. items (86) to (90) of the Check List should be carried out.
   NotE.—(a) It is recommended that the engines be started in a different order each time so that the vacuum pumps can be checked for correct functioning.
   (b) When the starboard engine is opened up, check that the generator is charging. The warning light should be out.
   38. Exercising and testing
   (i) Warm up to 15°C. oil temperature and 40°C. coolant temperature, and then for each engine in turn:—
   (ii) At warming up r.p.m. test each magneto as a precautionary check. and oopen the radiator shutters
   (iii) Open up to the static boost reading (zero under standard atmosphere conditions) and check the operation of the supercharger by setting the switch to AUTO and having the ground crew press the test pushbutton in each engine nacelle. R.p.m. should drop slightly and boost should rise when the change to high gear is made.
   (iv) At the same boost, exercise and check the operation of the constant speed unit by moving the r.p.m. control lever over the whole range at least twice. Return the control lever to the maximum r.p.m. position, then check that the r.p.m. are within 50 of those normally obtained.
   (v) At the same boost test each magneto. If the single ignition drop exceeds 150 r.p.m. but there is no undue vibration a full power check should be carried out; if there is marked vibration the engine should be stopped and the cause investigated. The full power check may also be carried out after repair, inspection other than daily, when the ignition drop at zero boost exceeds 150 r.p.m. or at the discretion of the pilot If the checks at the static boost are satisfactory no useful purpose will be served by a full power check.
   (vi) The full power check should be carried out as follows :— Open the throttle fully and check the take-off boost and r.p.m. Throttle back uiuil a drop in r.p.m. is apparent and test each magneto. If the single ignition drop exceeds 150 r.p.m the aircraft should not be flown.
   (vii) After completing the checks either at the static boost reading or at full power, steadily move the throttle to the fully closed position and check the minimum idling r p.m. Then open up to 1.200 r.p.m.
   39. Taxying
   Carry out items (93) and (94) in the Pilot's Check List.    MOSQUITO FB6

FINAL CHECKS FOR TAKE-OFF                            FINAL CHECKS FOR LANDING
TRIM ELEV...NOSE HEAVY AS REQUIRED                 FUEL...CHECK TANKS
RUD. ...SLIGHTLY RIGHT                                       RADIATORS ... OPEN
AIL. ... NEUTRAL                                                  BRAKES ... OFF
PROPS. ... MAX. RPM.                                       CHECK PRESSURES
FUEL ... COCKS FULLY ON                            WHEELS ... DOWN AND LOCKED
FLAPS ... .. UP OR 15°                                        PROPS. ... 2,850 RPM ON FINAL
RADIATORS ... OPEN                                        FLAPS ... FULL ON FINAL




   40. Take-off
   (i) Carry out items (95) to (105) in the Pilot's Check List.
   (ii) Taxy forward a few yards to straighten the tailwhocl.
   (iii) Open the throttles slowly, checking any tendency to swing by coarse use of the rudder and by differential throttle movement. There is little tendency to swing if the engines are kept synchronised.
   The travel of the throttle levers is very short for the power obtained.
   Coarse use of the throttles will aggravate any tendency to swing.
   (iv) When comfortably airborne, brake the wheels and raise the undercarriage, check that the undercarriage locks up. if it docs not hold the selector lever up for five seconds.
   (v) Safety speed at a weight of approximately 17.000 lb. flaps up or 15° down at -9 lb./sq.in. boost is 155 knots. At - 18 lb./sq.in. boost it is 170 knots. These speeds however, may vary considerably with individual aircraft.
   (vi) Before raising the flaps, if used, trim the aircraft slightly tail heavy.
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« Reply #3 on: October 22, 2008, 08:20:07 pm »

   41. Climbing
   (i) The speed for maximum rale of climb is 150 knots.
   (ii) Climb in low gear at 2.850 r.p.m. and + 9 lb./sq.in. boost. When (he maximum obtainable boost has fallen to +7 lb./sq.in., change to AUTO. Above 18.000 ft. decrease the airspeed by 2 knots per 1.000 ft.
   (iii) When climbing for maximum range, climb in low gear ai 2,650 r.p.m. and +7 lb./sq in. boost, using the airspeeds recommended above. When the maximum obtainable boost has fallen to + 4 lb./sq. in. set the supercharger gear change switch to AUTO and re-adjust the throttles. Above 18,000 fl. increase power to t 9 lb./sq.in. and 2.850 r.p.m. and reduce airspeed as recommended. Although less fuel is used to reach a given altitude by climbing at high power the total fuel used and the time taken on the subsequent cruise is the same, whether the aircraft is climbed at 2.650 r.p.m. and +7 lb./sq. in. boost or 2.850 r.p.m. and +9 lb./sq. in. boost.
   (iv) When climbing with a boost setting of less than + 9 lb./sq. in. the automatic boost control cannot open the throttle valves fully and the boost will begin to fall off before full throitle height is reached : the throttle levers should be progressively advanced to the gate to maintain the desired boost.
   (v) For operational necessity at any altitude, select AUTO and 3.000 r.p.m. and move the throttles fully forward (see para. 20).
   42. General flying
   (i) Stability
   Stability about all axes is satisfactory, but with the CO. aft longitudinal stability deteriorates on the climb.
   (ii) Changes of trim
   Undercarriage up ... Slightly nose up
   Undercarriage down ... Nose down
   Flaps up ... ... Strongly nose down
   Flaps down ... ... Nose up
   Radiator shutters open Nose up
   Radiator shutters closed Nose down
   Bomb doors open ... Nose up slightly
   Bomb doors closed ... Nose down slightly
   (iii) Controls
   The controls are light and ellective and manoeuvrability is good. The rudder should not be used violently at high speeds. When two-tier R.P. or rails are carried, aileron control is poor at low speeds, i.e.. during take-off and approach to land.
   (iv) Flying at reduced airspeeds
   Speed should be reduced to 175 knots, flaps lowered 15° and the r.p.m. controls set to give 2,650 r.p.m. Speed may then be reduced to 130 knots.
   43. Stalling
   (i) The approximate stalling speeds in knots are as follows:—
   Power off ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 18.000 lb.
   Undercarriage and flaps up .. .. .. .. 105
   Undercarriage and flaps down ... ... 95-100
   Power on under typical approach conditions 90-95
   (ii) Warning of the approach of the stall is given by pronounced buffeting of the control surfaces, the onset of which can be felt some 10 knots before the stall itself. At the stall the aircraft pitches, the A.S.I. fluctuates and the nose drops gently. There is little the tendency for the wing to drop unless the control column is held back. Recovery is easy and normal in all cases.
   44. Cruising
   (i) For any required airspeed, the maximum weak mixture boost ( +7 lb./sq. in.) together with the lowest practicable r.p.m. provide the most economical conditions.
   (ii) When cruising at low r.p.m. the engines should be cleared every 30 mins. at + 12 lb./sq.in. boost and 2,850 r.p.m. for 30 secs.
   (iii) At any height the speed for maximum range is 170 knots at a weight of 17.000 lb. but below 10.000 ft. this speed can only be obtained at an uneconomical boost setting, even when using minimum r.p.m. Speed should therefore be increased to approximately 200 knots.
   (iv) Fly with the supercharger gear change switch in the MOD position, unless the recommended airspeed cannot be obtained without exceeding 2,650 r.p.m.. when high gear should be engaged by switching to AUTO
   45. Flight planning charts
   The recommended cruising speeds ANMPG and GPU curves for a mean weight of 17,000 lb. and 20.000 lb. at sea level. 10.000 ft and 20,000 ft. in low gear and at 25.000 ft in high gear are on pages 30 to 33.


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6. Position error corrections
   The position error corrections are negligible and may be disregarded.
   47. Approach and landing
   (i) Carry out items 106 to 112 in the Pilot's Check List.
   (ii) From 17.000 Ib. to 18,000 lb. the following final approach speeds are recommended :—
   Flaps down
   Engine assisted ......... 100-105 knots
   At full load this speed should be increased by about 5 knots.
   (iii) With the undercarriage and flaps down the rate of descent is very high. If undershooting, corrective action entails the use of more power than might be expected.
   (iv) After landing and when clear of the runway carry out items 113 to 117 in the Pilot's Check List.
   48. Mislanding and going round again
   The aircraft will climb satisfactorily at approximately 120 knots with flaps and undercarriage down at climbing power.
   (i) Open the throttles to + 9 lb./sq. in. boost.
   (ii) Raise the undercarriage and while it is retracting raise the flaps to 15°. and rc-trim.
   (iii) At a safe height and speed retract the flaps fully and retrim.
   49. Stopping the engines
   (i) If the serviceability of the engine is in doubt, such items of the run-up given in para. 38 as may be necessary should be carried out. In all cases, however, the engines should be idled at 1.000 r.p.m. for a short period and during this period if no other check of the ignition has been made the magnetos should be tested for a dead cut.
   (ii) To stop the engines the slow-running cut-outs should be pulled out until the engines have stopped, after which they should be released smartly.
   (iii) After the engines have stopped, carry out items 118 to 12& in the Pilot's Check List.
   50. Oil dilution
   (i) Adjust the oil level in the tanks to 12½ gallons.
   (ii) To ensure a cold sun at the following temperatures the oil should be diluted for the times quoted below :
   Between - 10°C and - 15 °C....... 1 minute
   Between - 15°C. and - 26°C...... 2 minutes
   (iii) During the next start after 2 minutes' dilution the minimum partial boiling-off period at 2,000 r.p.m. is 10 minutes. After 1 minute dilution no special partial boiling-off precautions are necessary.

« Last Edit: July 29, 2010, 11:17:53 am by Broker, Reason: ubačena slika u atačment » Logged
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« Reply #4 on: October 22, 2008, 08:24:41 pm »

  51. Engine data Marlin 23 and 25
   The principal engine limitations are as follows:—
   Merlin 25     Super
                     charger       Boost   Temperature   °C
                 gear   R.p.m.   lb./sg.in.Coolant    Oil
MAX. TAKE-OFF   Low   3,000                                   +18°       
INTERMEDIATE
1 HR. LIMIT   Low
High                          2,850      +9       125              90
MAXIMUM
CONTINUOUS   Low
High                          2,650       +7   105 (115)**   90
OPERATIONAL NECESSITY
5 MINS LIMIT   Low
High                          3,000      +18*      135             105




   * May not be used at r.p.m below 2,850.
   ** The temperature shown in brackets ny»y be used if necessary for short periods only.
   NOTE.—In some aircraft Merlin 23 engines will still be installed. The difference as regards operational limitations from those for the Merlin 25 quoted above are as follows :—                                            MAX. TAKE-OFF   ...   ...   +14 lb./sq.in.
OPERATIONAL NECESSITY
5 MINS LIMIT    Low
                       High   3,000   +14 lb./sq.in.*
                                             +14 lb./sq.in.*




   * Obtainable by use of the boost control cut-out
   Merlin 23 and 25 OIL PRESSURE
MINIMUM IN FLIGHT   30 lb./sq.in.
MINIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR TAKE-OFF
OIL              +15°C
COOLANT   +40°C




   52. Flying limitations.
   (i) Deliberate spinning is prohibited and an incipient spin should be checked by immediate recovery action.
   Although aerobatics are permitted at weights below 19.100 lb. without bomb load, underwing stores or wing drop tanks, they are not recommended owing to the possibility of damaging the special equipment.
   (ii) The controls are light and effective and care should be taken to avoid excessive accelerations in turns and recovery from dives. At high speeds violent use of the rudder and large angles of yaw must be avoided.
   (iii) Maximum weights
   Take-off and gentle manoeuvres..20.500 1b.
   All forms of flying...... 19.000 Ib.
   Landing ........ 20.500 Ib.
   (iv) Maximum speeds in knots are:
   (a) Without underwing stores or with 2 x 250 or 500 Ib. G.P. bombs with standard wing bomb fairings.
   (b) With 2 x 100 gal. wing drop tanks.
   (c) With underwing R.P. or depth charges.
   (d) With underwing stores.     (a)   (b)   (c)   (d)
Sea level to 10.000 ft              370   330   350   305
10.000 ft. to 15.000 ft.              350   330   350   305
15.000 ft. to 20.000 ft              320   320   320   305
20.000 ft. to 25.000 ft.              295   295   295   295
25.000 ft. to 30.000 ft.      260   260   260   260
30.000 ft. to 35.000 ft.              235   235   235   235




   Bomb doors open ............ 305
   Undercarriage down............ 155
   Flaps not more than 25° down ...... 175
   Flaps fully down ............ 130
   (v) (a) Firing of RP is prohibited whilst carrying drop tanks and until at least one minute after they have been jettisoned.
   (b) Wing drop tanks should only be jettisoned in level flight without yaw, at speeds between 17S and 260 knots.
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« Reply #5 on: October 22, 2008, 08:25:37 pm »

 53. Feathering
   (i) Close the throttle.
   (ii) Hold the pushbutton in only long enough to ensure that it stays in by itself, then release it so that it can spring out when the feathering is complete. If it does not spring out, it must be pulled out.
   (iii) Turn off the fuel cock.
   (iv) When the engine has stopped, or nearly stopped, switch off the ignition and close the radiator shutter.
   54. Unfeathering
   (i) Set the throttle slightly open and the r.p.m. control lever fully back, and then switch on the ignition.
   (ii) Hold the pushbutton in until r p.m. rise to 800-1.000 and ensure that it springs out fully.
   (iii) Turn on the fuel.
   (iv) If the propeller does not return to normal constant-speed operation it must be feathered and unfeathered again, releasing the pushbutton at slightly higher r.p.m.
   (v) It is advisable to unfcather at speeds below 175 knots to avoid risk of engine overspeeding.
   (vi) Idle the engine at approximately 1,800 r.p.m. until the temperatures reach the minimum for opening up.
   55. Engine failure during take-off
   (i) The handling characteristics of individual aircraft differ considerably according to age and load. Except in cases where it is known to be less ; at approximately 17.000 lb., safety speed should be assumed to be 155 knots at -r 9 lb./ sq. in. boost and. if the engines have not been de-rated 170 knots at +18 Ib./sq. in boost.
   (ii) If safety speed has been attained, the aircraft will climb away on one engine at climbing power at about 135-140 knots provided that: —
   (a) The propeller of the failed engine is feathered and the radiator shutter closed.
   (b) The flaps are fully up.
   (iii) The drag of a windmilling propeller is very high and unless feathering action is taken immediately, control can only be maintained at the expense of a rapid loss in height.
   (iv) The aircraft accelerates slowly to the safety speed at + 18 Ib./sq. in. boost. If high power is used for take-off, it is recommended that climbing power is used as soon after take-off as is possible.
   56. Engine failure in flight
   (i) Close the throttle and feather the propeller of the failed engine.
   (ii) Open the radiator shutter and keep a careful watch on the temperature of the live engine.
   (iii) At full load, height can be maintained on either engine up to 12.000 ft. using climbing power at about 150 knots.
   57. Single-engine landing
   (i) While manoeuvring with the flaps and undercarriage up a speed of 140-150 knots should be maintained ;
   (ii) A normal circuit can safely be made irrespective of which engine has failed. The checks before landing should be carried out us for a normal landing, but it should be remembered that the undercarriage will take longer to lower on one engine approximately 30 seconds at 2,850 r.p.m. — and owing to its high drag, height will be lost once it has started to lower.
   (iii) When across wind, flaps may be lowered 15° and the live engine used carefully to regulate the rate of descent. Speed should not be allowed to fall below 135 knots until it is clear that the airfield is within easy reach ; flaps may then be lowered further as required and power and speed reduced as height is lost, aiming to cross the airfield boundary at the speeds quoted for an engine assisted landing.
   58. Going round again on one engine
   Going round again is only possible if the decision is made while ample height remains and before more than 15° of flap is lowered. The height is required in order to maintain the speed above the critical speed, for the high power necessary, while the undercarriage and flaps are retracting. When the decision to go round again has been made:—
   (i) Ensure that the speed is not less than 135 knots, and then increase power on the live engine to --9 Ib./sq. in. boost and 2.850 r.p.m.
   (ii) Raise the undercarriage.
   (iii) Increase speed to 140-150 knots.
   (iv) Raise the flaps and re-trim.
   (v) If the engines are not de-rated, power higher than +9 lb./sq.in. should only be applied carefully and within the limits of rudder control.
   59. Undercarriage and flaps emergency operation
   (i) If the undercarriage has lowered but not locked down:
   (a) Re-select DOWN, check that the selector lever returns to neutral, and check the position of the undercarriage by the indicator and warning horn.
   (b) If the undercarriage is still not locked down, but the selector lever springs back to neutral, this indicates functioning of the hydraulic pumps, but no positive operation of the undercarriage down locks. Leave the selector in the neutral position until the flaps have been lowered, then take every opportunity of holding the undercarriage selector in the DOWN position. After landing hold the selector in the DOWN position until the units can be locked by the ground crew.
   Until this has been done, avoid raising the flaps, taxying. turning or using the brakes.
   (ii) If the indicator fails to show that the undercarriage is locked down, and the selector lever does not spring back to neutral:
   (a) Return (he selector lever to neutral and push the emergency knob down. Operate the handpump until the indicator shows that the wheels are locked down, or until considerable resistance is fell for several strokes. This, however, will not lower the tail wheel.
   (b) Return the emergency knob to the UP position. Put the flap selector lever DOWN and handpump until the flaps are 15° down. Then return the selector lever to neutral.
   (c) Select undercarriage DOWN, and use the handpump in an attempt to lower the tailwheel. Increased resistance to the handpump indicates when the operation is complete.
   (d) Lower the flaps fully, or as required, using the handpump. Return the flaps selector lever to neutral.
   (e) If the main wheels fail to lock down, or to remain locked down, push the emergency knob down again and maintain pressure on the undercarriage by using the handpump during the landing (see sub para, (i) (b)).
   60. Flapless landing.
   The approach with flaps up is very flat, and difficulty may be experienced in maintaining a steady airspeed. At the maximum landing weight the final approach should be made at 115 knots. At light loads, this speed may be reduced by S knots. The touchdown is straightforward and the landing run, although lengthened, does not become excessive.
   61. Bombs, R.P. and wing drop tank jettisoning
   (i) Bombs and wing drop tanks
   (a) Select bomb doors DOWN.
   (b) Check doors open with warning light.
   (c) Jettison small bomb containers by pressing the button (27).
   (d) Select all bombs, and press the release button (45) on the control column ; this will release the fuselage bombs unfused. and the wing bombs or wing drop tanks.
   (ii) R.P.
   Rocket projectiles cannot be jettisoned except by firing as stated in para. 29 (ii).
   62. Fire-extinguishers
   The engine fire-extinguisher buttons (70) are on the electrical panel on the cockpit starboard wall. They operate automatically in the event of a crash. A hand fire-exiinguisher is provided to (he right of the pilot's seat. Mod. 1145 introduces, a tire warning light which is positioned in the centre of each feathering pushbutton. When this light glows red it indicates an outbreak of fire at the appropriate engine.
   A semi-automatic fire-extinguisher system will be introduced under Mod. 1398,
   63. Parachute exit
   Exit should be made through the entrance door, which must first be jettisoned by pulling the handle (80) and kicking out. Do not touch the normal handle. If possible feather the starboard propeller before leaving the aircraft.
   64. Crash exit
   Through the roof panel—pull down the red lever in front of the panel and push out.
   65. Ditching
   (i) The aircraft may be successfully ditched but, whenever possible, it should be abandoned by parachute.
   (ii) When ditching, jettison the roof panel but keep the entrance door closed.
   (iii) Lower the flaps 15°
   (iv) The harness should be light and locked,
   (v) Ditching should be along the swell or into wind if the swell is not steep.
   (vi) If power is available it should be used to reduce speed of touchdown as far as possible.
   66. Crash landing
   Cases have occurred of paddle-bladed propellers, when under power, breaking on impact, when the port propeller is liable to cause injury to the pilot's legs. The engines should, therefore, be throttled fully back before touching down.
   67. IFF
   The demolition switches (69) for the IFF arc on the electrical panel aft of the master switch (68).
   68. Signal pistol
   A signal pistol is mounted in the centre of the cockpit roof above the pilot's head. A stowage for ten cartridges is provided under the observer's scat.
   69. Emergency equipment
   (i) Desert equipment
   Desert equipment is stowed in the rear fuselage and is accessible through the rear hatch.
   (ii) Dinghy
   An L type dinghy with an emergency pack is stowed in the fuselage above the centre section. The dinghy is inflated automatically by an immersion switch, or manually by pulling the release cable in the roof behind the pilot's head.
   (iii) Crash axe
   This is stowed at the back of the pilot's seat.
   (iv) First-aid outfit
   This is stowed under the pilot's seat.
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« Reply #6 on: October 22, 2008, 08:27:08 pm »


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   1. Coolant temperature gauges
   2. Compass
   3. Oil temperature gauges.
   4. Oil pressure gauges.
   5. Fuel pressure warning lights (see para.5)
   6. Boost pressure gauges.
   7. Floodlights.
   8. R.p.m. indicators.
   9. Floodlights.
   10. Stowage for R.I. compass repeater.
   11. Exciter button for U.V. lighting.
   12. Boost control cut-out (see para. 20).
   13. Instrument flying panel.
   14. Gunsight bracket
   15. Radiator shutter switches.
   16. Air-intake filter switch.
   17. Ultra violet lamp.
   18. Magneto switches.
   19. Rudder trimming tab and indicator.
   20. Electrical services switch.
   21. Immersed pump warning light.
   22. Engine starter switches.
   23. Booster-coil switches.
   24. Ventilators.
   25. Feathering buttons.
   26. Bomb doors warning light.
   27. Bomb containers and wing drop tanks. jettison button.
   28. Bombs or tanks/camera change-over switch.
   29. Flaps selector lever.
   30. Bomb selector switches.
   31. Bomb fusing switches.
   32. Undercarriage selector.
   33. Gun master switch.
   34. Bomb doors selector.
   35. Oxigen regulator.
   36. Triple pressure gauge.
   37. Flaps position indicator.
   38. Undercarriage position indicator.
   39. Landing lamp switches.


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